Genetics Science Learning Center
Multimedia Genetics Textbook
History of Genetics Timeline
Genetics images (useful resource for your presentations)
Required Reading (in addition to papers assigned for each topic)
Watson, JD. 1968 The double helix: A personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA. New American Library (please read before first GGG291 meeting)
Guide to The Double Helix
Schrodinger, E. 1944. What is
life? (influential book for main
developers of molecular genetics)
Judson, H. F. 1980. The eight day of creation. The makers of the revolution in biology. Touchstone, Simon and Schuster, NY.
Oct. 3 -- Week 1
Introduction, course organization
Before Mendel, Gregor Mendel and his classical paper. (Johnathon Anderson)
Mendel 1865 Experiments in Plant Hybridization Verhandlungendes naturforschenden Vereines in Brnn, Bd. IV fr das Jahr1865, Abhandlungen, 3–47.
Sturtevant 1965. A history of Genetics. Chapters 1and 2
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:588-591, 597-607 , 639-647
The Field Museum's Gregor Mendel: Planting the Seeds of Genetics.
Klein 2000 Johann MendelÕs Field of Dreams Genetics 156:1-6
Orel and Wood 1998 Empirical genetic laws published in Brno before Mendel was born. J. Heredity 89: 79-82.
Topic 2) 1866 to 1900, Rediscovery of Mendel's work, Controversies. (Claire Heinitz)
Sturtevant 1965. A history of Genetics. Chapters 3 and 4
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:639, 648-653
Hartl and Orel 1992. What did Gregor Mendel think he discovered? Genetics 131:245-253.
Fairbanks and Rytting 2001. Mendelian controversies; A botanical and historical review. Amer J. Bot. 88:737-52.
Bateson 1900. Problems of heredity as a subject for horticultural investigation. J. of the Royal Hort. soc. 25: 54-61
Correns 1900. G. Mendel's law concerning the behavior of progeny of varietal hybrids. First published in English as: Correns, C., 1950. G. Mendel's law concerning the behavior of progeny of varietal hybrids
http://www.esp.org/foundations/genetics/classical/holdings/c/cc-00.pdf. Genetics, 35(5,
pt 2): 33-41.
Originally published as: Correns, C. 1900. G. Mendels Regel ber das Verhalten der Nachkommenschaft der Rassenbastarde. Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 18: 158-168.
Novitski 2004. On FisherÕs criticism of MendelÕs results with the garden pea. Genetics 166: 1133-1136.
-- Week 2
Topic 3) Mendelian interpretation of continuous variation. (Steven Gore)
Sturtevant 1965. A history of Genetics. Chapter 9.
Carlson 1966. The gene: a critical history, Chapter 2, The Fight to Legitimize Genetics. (available on SmartSite)
East 1910. A Mendelian interpretation of variation that is apparently continuous. Amer. Naturalist 44:65-82.
East 1916. Studies on size inheritance in Nicotiana Genetics 1:164.
Topic 4) Birth of Population Genetics (Hardy-Weinberg). (Katherine Grazer)
Hardy 1908 Mendelian proportions in a mixed population. Science 28 (707):49-50
Crow and Dove 1988. Eighty years ago: the beginnings of population genetics, Genetics 119:473-476
Crow 1998. 90 Years ago; Beginning of Hybrid maize. Genetics 148:923-28.
Crow 1999. Hardy, Weinberg and Language Impediments Genetics 152:821-825
Edwards 2008, G. H. Hardy (1908) and Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium, Genetics 179: 1143-1150.
Section on Hardy-Weinberg in any Genetics textbook, such as Russell 2005,. pp 663-666, Griffiths et al. 2000, pp722-723, etc.
Topic 5) Chromosome theory of inheritance. (Tae Hyun Kim)
Carothers 1917. The segregation and recombination of homologous chromosomes as found in two genera of Acrididae (Orthoptera). J. Morph 28:445-456.
Sturtevant 1965. A history of Genetics. Chapter 5.
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:653-676.
Crow and Crow 2002. 100 years ago: Sutton and the chromosome theory of inheritance Genetics 160: 1-4.
Hegreness and Meselson 2007. What did Sutton see? Genetics 176:1939-44
Oct. 17 -- Week 3
Topic 6) Morgan and the "Fly Room", Sex-linked inheritance and non-disjunction. (Angelica Kowalchuk)
Morgan 1910. Sex limited inheritance in Drosophila. Science 32:63-66
Bridges 1914. Direct proof through non-disjunction that the sex-linked genes of Drosophila are borne by the X-chromosome. Science 40:107-109. For complete story read Bridges 1916 papers (below).
Sturtevant 1965. A history of Genetics. Chapter 7 and 8.
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:676-687, 703-708.
Sturtevant 2001. Reminiscences of T.H. Morgan. Genetics 159:1-5.
Video of Dr GreenÕs Õ06 presentation
Morgan 1907. Experimental zoology. Chapter I. The experimental method. p3-11.
Bridges 1916. Non-disjunction as proof of the chromosome theory of heredity (part 1). Genetics, B, 1:1-52.
Bridges 1916. Non-disjunction as proof of the chromosome theory of heredity (part 2). Genetics, B, 1:107-163.
Green 1996. The "Genesis of the White-eyed mutant in Drosophila melanogaster: A reappraisal Genetics 142:329-331
Horowitz 1998. TH Morgan ay CalTech: A Reminisence Genetics 149:1629-32
Green 2002. It really is not a fruit fly. Genetics 162:1-3
MorganÕs Nobel Lecture
Topic 7) Genetic Recombination and crossing over. (Nicole Narayan)
Muller 1916. The Mechanism of Crossing-over. New York: The American Naturalist I. (50: 193-222); II (50: 284-305)
Creighton and McClintock 1931. A correlation of cytological and genetical crossing-over in Zea mays. PNAS 17:492-97.
Swanson et al 1981. Cytogenetics (Swanson et al) pp 261-264 (summary of Stern C. 1931 Biol Zentr 51:586)
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:691-703
Muller's Nobel lecture
Oct. 24 -- Week 4
Topic 8) Gene linkage and genetic mapping, multiple alleles. (Jillian Ng)
Sturtevant 1913. The linear arrangement of six sex-linked factors in Drosophila J. Exp. Zool. 14:43-59.
Sturtevant 1913. The Himalayan rabbit case, with some considerations of multipe allelomorphs. Amer Natur. 47:234-239
Muller 1914. A gene for the fourth chromosome of Drosophila J. Exp. Zool. 17:325-335.
Sturtevant 1965. A history of Genetics. Chapter 6.
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:687-691.
Lewis .1995 Remembering Sturtevant Genetics 141:1227-30
Novitski, E. 2000, Sturtevant and Dobzhansky: Two Scientists at Odds.
(available on SmartSite)
Double strand break video
Topic 9) Plant cytogenetics: polyploids, aneuploids, translocations. (Sebastian Reyes Chin Wo)
Blackeslee et al. 1920. Chromosomal duplication and Mendelian phenomena in Datura mutants. Science 52:388-390.
Cleland 1923. Chromosome arrangements during meiosis in certain Oenotheras. Amer. Nat. 57:562-566.
Kihara 1924. Cytological and genetical studies of important cereal species ÉKyoto Univ. Coll. Sci. Mem. Ser. B 1:3-187 (available on SmartSite).
Sears 1939. Cytogenetic studies with polyploidy species of wheat. Genetics 24:509-523.
Belling and Blackeslee 1926. On the attachment of non-homologous chromosomes at the reduction division in certain 25-chromosome Daturas. PNAS 12:7-11
Harte. Oenothera: Contributions of a Plant to Biology. Springer. (available on SmartSite)
Sears 1956. The transfer of leaf-rust resistance from Aegilops umbellate to wheat. Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 92:1-22. (available on SmartSite)
Sturtevant 1965. A history of Genetics. Chapter 10.
Jahuar 1991. Ernest Sears (1910-91): A scientist, a man, a visionary. J. Hered 82: 437-41
Golczyk et al 2005. FISH karyotyping of Renner permanent heterozygous in Rheo spatheca Genome 48:145-53
Oct. 31 -- Week 5
Topic 10) Bar eye: Deficiencies, duplications, unequal crossing over and position effects. (Johnathon Anderson)
Bridges 1917. Deficiency. Genetics 2:445-456
Sturtevant 1925 The effects of unequal crossing over at the Bar locus in Drosophila. Genetics 10:117-147.
Painter 1934. Salivary chromosomes and the attack on the gene. J. Hered 25:465-476.
Bridges 1936. The BAR "gene" a duplication. Science 83:210-11.
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:714-720.
Topic 11) Induced Mutation, Balance lethals, the ClB stock and mutation rate. (Steven Gore)
Muller 1917. An Oenothera-like case in Drosophila. PNAS 3:619-26
Muller 1922. Variation due to change in the individual gene. Amer Natur. 56:32-50
Muller 1927 Artificial transmutation of the gene. Science 66:84-87
Stadler 1928. Mutations in barley induced by X-rays and radium. Science 68: 186-87
Sturtevant 1965. A history of Genetics. Chapter 11.
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:710-714
Crow and Abrahamson 1997. Seventy years ago: mutation becomes experimental Genetics 147:1491-96
Painter 1933. A new method for the study of chromosome rearrangements and plotting of chromosome maps. Science 78:585-86.
Sturtevant and Beadle. 1962. An Introduction to Genetics. Dover pp188-191; 206-212.
Sturtevant 1965. A history of Genetics. Chapter 10
Carlson 1966. The gene: a critical history, Chapter 9. (available on SmartSite)
Crow 2005. Hermann Joseph Muller, Evolutionist. Nature Reviews, Genetics 6:94145
Nov. 7 -- Week 6
Topic 12) Inborn errors of metabolism, one gene one enzyme. (Katherine Grazer)
Garrod 1902. The incidence of alkaptonuria: a study in chemical individuality. The Lancet 160:1616-1620
Beadle and Tatum 1941. Genetic control of biochemical reactions in Neurospora. PNAS 27:499-506.
Srb and Horowitz 1944. The ornithine cycle in Neurospora and its genetic control. J. Biol. Chem. 154:129-139.
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:726-731
Horowitz 1990. George W. Beadle Genetics 124:1-6
Bearn 1994.Archibald Edward Garrod, the reluctant geneticist. Genetics 137:1-4
Carlson 1966. The gene: a critical history, Chapter 19
Doebley 2001. George BeadleÕs other hypothesis: one gene-one trait. Genetics 158:487-493.
Hickman and Cairns 2003 The centenary of one gene one enzyme hypothesis, Genetics 163: 839-841.
Horowitz et al.2004 A Centenial G H Beadle Genetics 166:1-10
Beadle, Tatum and Lederberg Nobel Lectures,
Topic 13) DNA, carrier of inheritance. (Claire Heinitz)
Griffiths 1928 The significance of pneumococcal types. J. of Hyg 27:113-157. (available on SmartSite)
Avery, MacLeod and McCarty 1944. Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumococcal types. J. Exp. Med. 79: 137-158.
Hershey and Chase 1952. Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage. J. of General Physiol. 36:39-56.
Moore 1986. Science as a Way of Knowing- Genetics. Amer Zool. 26:731-735.
Lederberg 1994. The transformation of genetics by DNA: An anniversary celebration of Avery, MacLeod and McCarty (1944). Genetics 136:423-26.
Stein and Moberg 1994. A triple tribute to the experiment that transformed biology. J. Exp Medicine 79:137.
Stahl 1998. Hershey. Genetics 149: 1-6.
JudsonÕs chapter 4
Nov. 14 -- Week 7
Topic 14) Molecular structure of DNA and replication. (Tae Hyun Kim)
Watson and Crick 1953. Molecular structure of nucleic acids. Nature 171:737-8
Watson and Crick 1953. Genetic implications of the structure of DNA. Nature 171:964-967.
Meselson and Stahl 1958. The replication of DNA in E. coli. PNAS 44: 671-682
Watson 1968 The double helix: A personal account of the discovery of the structure of DNA. New American Library
Holmes 2001. Meselson ,Stahl and the Replication of DNA A History of Ōthe most beautiful experiment in biologyĶ Yale U. Press
WatsonÕ TED lecture, 2005
Nova: The secret of photo 51
The discovery of DNA: a photo finish.
Crick, Watson and Wilkins Nobel lectures
The elementary DNA of Dr Watson (infamous Times interview)
JudsonÕs chapters 1, 2, 3
Fischer 2007. Max Delbruck. Genetics 177:673-76
Wain-Hobson 2006. The third bond. Nature 439:539
Topic 15) Units of heredity, intragenic recombination. (Angelica Kowalchuk)
Green and Green 1949. Crossing over between alleles at the Lozenge locus in Drosophila melanogaster. PNAS 35:586-591
Benzer 1955 Fine structure of a genetic region in bacteriophage.PNAS 41:344.
Benzer 1956. The elementary units of heredity. A Symp. on the Chemical Basis of Heredity. the Johns Hopkins Press.(available on SmartSite)
Benzer 1961. On the topography of the genetic fine structure. PNAS 47:403.
Green 1990. The foundations of genetic fine structure: a retrospective from memory. Genetics 124: 793-796.
Lewis 2004. Did Demerec discover intragenic recombination in 1928? Genetics 168:1785-1786.
JudsonÕs chapter 5
Benzer obituary 2008 Nature 451:139.
Nov. 21 -- Week 8
Topic 16) Association of mutations and amino acid changes. (Nicole Narayan)
Pauling et al. 1949. Sickle cell anemia, a molecular disease. Science 110:543-548.
Ingram 1956. A specific chemical difference between the globins of normal human and sickle-cell anemia haemoglobin. Nature 178:792-94.
Ingram 1957. Gene mutations in human haemoglobin: the chemical difference between normal and sickle cell haemoglobin. Nature 180:326.
Yanofsky 1964. On the colinearity of gene structure and protein structure. PNAS 51:266
Yanofsky et al. 1967. The complete amino acid sequence of the tryptophan synthetase protein. PNAS 57:296-8.
Strasser 1999. ŌSickle cell anemia, a molecular diseaseĶ. Science 286:1488-90
Ingram 2004. Sickle-cell anemia hemoglobin: the molecular biology of the first Ōmolecular diseaseĶ – the crucial importance of serendipity. Genetics 167: 1-7.
Topic 17) The Genetic code. (Jillian Ng)
Crick 1958. On protein synthesis. Symp of the Soc. of Experimental Biol. 12:138-163. (available on SmartSite)
Crick et al. 1961. General nature of the genetic code for proteins. Nature 192:1227-1232.
Nirenberg and Matthaei 1961. The dependence of cell-free protein synthesis in E. coli upon naturally occurring or synthetic polyribonucleotides. PNAS 47:1588 (photo)
CrickÕs Nobel lecture
OchoaÕs Nobel Lecture
Nirenberg and Khorana Nobel Lectures
JudsonÕs chapters 6, 8
Nov. 28 -- Week 9
Topic 18) Transposable elements (Jennifer Petersen)
Federoff 1994. Barbara McClintock. Genetics 136:1-10
McClintock 1950 The Origin and Behavior of Mutable Loci in Maize. PNAS 36:344-355
McClintock 1956. Controlling elements and the gene. .Cold Spring Harbor Symp. on Quantitative Biol. 21:197-216.
McClintock 1961. Some parallels between gene control systems in maize and bacteria. The American Naturalist. 95:265-277.
Federoff 1998 Rhoades and transposition Genetics 150:957-61
McClintockÕs Nobel Lecture
Kass 2003 Records and recollections, a new look at Barbara McClintock Genetics 164:1255-60
Green: In Memoriam
Topics 19 and 20) Operons and Split Genes (Sebastian Reyes Chin Wo)
Jacob et al. 1960. The operon: a group of genes whose expression is coordinated by an operator. Comptes Rendus 250:1727.(available on SmartSite)
Jacob and Monod 1961. Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins. J. Mol. Biol. 3:318-356.
Jacob and Monod Nobel Lectures
Berget et al. 1977. Spliced segments at the 5' terminus of adenovirus 2 late mRNA. PNAS 74:3171-75.
Tilghman et al. 1978. The intervening sequence of mouse b-globin gene is transcribed within the 15S b-globin mRNA precursor. PNAS 75:1309-1313.
SharpÕs Nobel Lecture
Biographies: Jacob, F. Monod J.
JudsonÕs chapter 7
Dec. 5 -- Week 10
Topic 21) Recombinant DNA and PCR (Roger Chetelat)
Cohen et al 1973. Construction of Biologically Functional Bacterial Plasmids in vitro. PNAS. 70:3240-44.
Berg et al. 1974. Potential biohazards of recombinant DNA molecules. PNAS 71:2593-94.
Cohen 1975. The Manipulation of Genes. Scientific Ameericanr 233:24-38. (available on SmartSite)
Grobstein 1977 The Recombinant DNA Debate. Scientific American 237:22-33. (available on SmartSite)
BergÕs Nobel Lecture
Moratorium, Asilomar conference
Kary Mullis Nobel lecture
Kary Mullis TED lecture
Topic 22) Genetics at UC-Davis (Roger Chetelat)
Rick (1991). Tomato paste: A concentrated review of genetic highlights from the beginnings to the advent of molecular genetics. Genetics 128:1-5.
Gottlieb et al. (2000) George Ledyard Stebbins. University of California: In Memoriam, 2000. p. 261-264.
Green (2010) 2010: A century of Drosophila genetics through the prism of the white Gene. Genetics 184: 3-7.
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